Then and Now
Sts. Peter and Paul Parish in
Illinois to Close
on December 1, 2001
The Catholic Diocese of Springfield in Illinois has
announced that Sts. Peter and Paul Parish in Springfield will be closed
December 1, 2001 due to declining numbers of parish members and the
number of priests available to minister in the diocese. Even though the
will be closed, the decision on the future of the 135-year old church
adjacent rectory, located at Sixth and Reynolds streets, is still under
advisement. Sts. Peter and Paul Church is Springfield's oldest standing
Catholic parish church.
The parish's geographic territory south of Carpenter
Street will be annexed to the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception,
at Sixth and Lawrence streets. Territory north of Carpenter Street will
be annexed to St. Joseph Parish, 1345 North Sixth Street.
The decree closing the parish officially transfers
all registers, sacramental records, archives and seals of the parish to
the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception.
TIME LINE FOR
I recently went to a seminar and learned a lot about land
migration of ancestors, etc. I remember one phrase: "Your
people may not have moved, but their land may have." The speaker
suggested making a "time line" for the county you are researching,
because even though the land didn't really move, the county boundaries
certainly may have. So.....I worked up a time line for Effingham
County, and was I ever surprised. I was looking in wrong
places!!!! So to share with all of you, here is the time line I
worked up for Effingham County.
|Northwest Territory, St. Clair County
||Indiana Territory, St. Clair County
||Illinois Territory, St. Clair County
||Illinois Territory, Madison County
||Illinois Territory, Edwards County
||Illinois Territory, Crawford County
||Statehood (still a part of Crawford County)
||What is now Effingham County was split. The western 2/3
was Fayette County; the eastern 1/3 was Crawford County
|1831 to present
COUNTY POOR FARM & CEMETERY
(Courtesy of Bill Grimes of the Effingham Daily News)
County had a poor farm for nearly 80 years, first at the old courthouse
in Ewington beginning around 1860, then in Watson Township from the
1890's until about 1940. The county privatized the
operation in 1931. The Social Security Act of 1935 gave the
elderly and disabled a safety net and made poor farms obsolete.
Consequently, the Effingham County Poor Farm was closed around
1940. The 1930 census showed the caretaker's family, plus eight
"inmates". The two-story home that housed the residents was torn
down in the 1940's. The cemetery is adjacent to the Poor Farm. No
one has been buried in the cemetery for nearly 70 years, but so far 63
graves have been identified in the cemetery, which has long been taken
over by brush and woodland.
The area's historical significance is invaluable. As of July,
2008 a group of history-minded folks in Effingham County are interested
in restoring the old cemetery. An ad-hoc committee has been
formed under the authority of the Effingham County Board. Once
the area is cleared and all the graves are located, the committee hopes
to put a granite marker on the site with a brief historical summary.
Location: South and west of the Effingham County Memorial Airport near
Heartville in Watson Township. As of July 2008, there is no
public access to the site.
TOWN NAME CHANGES
- Barlow - Holland
- Boo Hoo - Moccasin
- Bristol - Mason
- Broughton - Effingham
- Crossroads - Franklin
- Liberty - Beecher City (thanks, Cindy Le Mons)
- Welton - Gilmore
- Winterrowd aka Tailhold
- Blue Point
- Bob Done (Actually in Fayette County, but the buildings were
moved to Beecher City)
- Bull Flat - was in the northwestern part of Douglas
Township (near present-day Green Creek) - settled by people from
Tennessee (from The History of Effingham Co. (1883))
- Fiddlers' Ridge - was a settlement; never actually a
town. It was south of Effingham on Route 45. It was the
high table land about 1/2 mile wide on the east bank of the Wabash
River and between Bishop Creek and Salt Creek.
- Green Creek - a "settlement" north of Effingham on
Route 45. It is not an official town, but a community with a
school, Catholic church and cemetery.
- Funkhouser - once was a thriving town, but is now a
- Shumway (being revitalized as of the late 1990's)
DISEASES - THEN
(You May Find These in Old Death Records)
- Ablepsy - blindness
- Abscess - boil
- Addison's Disease (aka bronzed skin disease) - a disease
characterized by severe weakness, low blood pressure and a bronzed
coloration of the
- Ague - a fever, usually malarial, marked by regularly
- American Plague - Yellow fever.
- Anasarca - dropsy
- Anthrax - carbuncle or large painful boil.
- Aphonia - laryngitis.
- Aphtha - the infant disease "thrush".
- Apoplexy - paralysis due to stroke.
- Arachnitis - inflammation of membranes in the brain.
- Ascetis - probably liver disease from cirrhosis or cancer;
perhaps kidney or heart disease.
- Atrophy - wasting away or diminishing in size.
- Bad Blood - syphilis.
- Barbers Itch - Ringworm of the beard.
- Bilious Colic - typhoid; hepatitis; typhus.
- Billary Calculis - stones in the gallbladder, probably with
infection or rupture of the gallbladder.
- Billous Fever - a fever caused by a disorder of the liver.
- Black Plague - bubonic plague.
- Black Fever - acute infection with high temperature and dark
red skin lesions and high mortality rate.
- Bladder in Throat - diptheria.
- Bone Shave - Sciatica
- Brain Fever - probably a meningitis, perhaps polio or an
- Breakbone - Dengue fever.
- Bright's Disease - kidney inflammation.
- Bronze John - Yellow fever.
- Bronzed Skin Disease - See Addison's Disease.
- Cachexy - malnutrition.
- Caduceus - falling sickness or epilepsy.
- Camp Fever - typhus
- Cancer - malignant growth, carcinoma.
- Canine Madness - rabies, hydrophia.
- Canker - probably a mouth infection with gangrene. Perhaps a
misspelling of cancer.
- Catalepsy - seizures; trances
- Cerebritis - inflammation of cerebrum or lead poisoning.
- Cerebrospinala Fever - See Meningitis
- Chilblains - Painful sore or swelling of the foot or hand
caused by exposure to the cold.
- Child Bed Fever - infection following the birth of a child.
- Chin Cough - Whooping Cough.
- Cholelithiasis - Gall stones.
- Cholera - any of several intestinal diseases, but mainly an
acute, severe, infectious disease characterized by profuse diarrhea,
intestinal pain and dehydration.
- Chorea - Saint Vitus' Dance.
- Clap - Gonorrhea.
- Commotion - concussion
- Consumption - see Tuberculosis. Also known as
- Corruption - infection.
- Costiveness - constipation.
- Cramp Colic - appendicitis.
- Crusted Tetter - Impetigo.
- Cystitis - inflammation of the bladder.
- Decrepitude - feebleness due to old age.
- Dementia Paralytica - term for the advanced stage of
syphilis. (Thank you Patty Frazer!)
- Dengue - infectious fever from East Africa.
- Diptheria - an acute infectious disease caused by a
bacterium and characterized by weakness, high fever and the formation
in the air passages of a tough, membrane-like obstruction to breathing.
- Dock Fever - Yellow Fever.
- Dropsy - an accumulation of fluid in the body, probably
heart or kidney disease.
- Dysentery - any of various intestinal inflammations
characterized by abdominal pain and intense diarrhea with bloody,
- Dyspepsia - any disorder of the stomach of intestine,
usually over a long time. May have been a ruptured ulcer, colitis,
- Elephantiasis - form of leprosy.
- Encephalitis - swelling of the brain; aka sleeping sickness.
- Enteric Fever - Typhoid fever.
- Epilepsy - a disorder of the nervous system characterized by
- Epitaxis - nose bleed.
- Erisipelas/Erysipelas (aka Rose, Saint Anthony's Fire) - an
acute infectious disease of the skin or mucous membranes caused by a
streptococcus and characterized by local inflammation and fever.
- Falling Sickness - Epilepsy.
- Flu - See Influenza
- Flux, Interries, Summer Complaint - These all represent
diarrhea, perhaps dysentery, typhoid, cholera or food poisoning. Summer
complaint was usually used for children, especially their second
summer. Interries is
- French Pox - Syphilis.
- Furuncle - boil.
- Gangrene - death and decay of tissue in a part of the body.
- Gastro Enteritis - an intestinal upset. Perhaps typhoid,
dysentery, or cholera. Possibly a ruptured stomach ulcer, colitis,
- Glanders - a contagious disease of horses, mules, etc.
characterized by fever, swelling of glands beneath the lower jaw,
inflammation of the
nasal mucous membranes, etc. It can be transmitted to man and
- Glandular Fever - mononucleosis.
- Gleet - Urinary tract disease.
- Gravel - Kidney or bladder stones.
- Great Pox - Syphilis.
- Green Sickness - anemia.
- Grippe - Influenza
- Grocer's Itch - skin disease caused by mites in sugar or
- Hemiplegy - paralysis of one side of the body.
- Hip Gout - Osteomylitis.
- Hives - skin eruption with severe itching.
- Hospital Fever - Typhus.
- Hunt Fever - strep throat
- Hydrophobia - rabies.
- Icterus - jaundice.
- Impetigo - contagious skin disease characteized by pustules.
- Infantile Paralysis - polio.
- Influenza - an acute, contagious, infectious disease caused
by any of a specific group of viruses and characterized by inflammation
of the respiratory tract, fever and muscular pain. (Also called "flu".)
- Intermittent Fever - a fever characterized by periodic
intervals when the body temperature returns to normal.
- Jail Fever - typhus
- Jaundice - Yellow discoloratin of the skin, whites of the
eyes, and mucous membranes.
- Kings Evil - Scrofula.
- Kruchhusten - whooping cough.
- Lagrippe - influenza.
- Lockjaw - tetanus.
- Lues Disease - Syphilis.
- Lues venera - venereal disease.
- Lumbago - back pain.
- Lung Fever - pneumonia
- Lung Sickness - Tuberculosis.
- Malaria - this was once thought to be from exposure to bad
air in swamps. It is an infectious disease, generally intermittent and
recurrent, caused by any of various protozoans that are parasitic in
the red blood corpuscles and are transmitted to man by the bite of an
infected mosquito. It is characterized by severe chills and fever.
- Mania - Insanity.
- Marasma, Marrasmus, Inanetion - an extreme malnutrition or
severe wasting, especially of children. Often due to diarrhea, vomiting
and chronic disease or starvation.
- Marasmus - consumption; tuberculosis.
- Measles - A highly infectious, communicable virus disease,
characterized by small red spots on the skin, high fever, nasal
discharge, etc. and occurring most frequently in childhood.
- Membranous Croup - Diptheria.
- Meningitis - An inflammation of the lining of the brain and
spinal column and is the result of infection from bacteria or viruses.
- Metritis - a severe infection of the woman's uterus with
purulent vaginal discharge.
- Miasma - Poisonous vapors thought to infect air.
- Milk Fever - Disease from drinking contaminated milk.
- Milk Sickness - a rare disease, caused by consuming dairy
products or flesh from cattle that have eaten any of various poisonous
weeds. For some reason, this seems to have been linked to nursing
mothers that died.
- Mormal - gangrene.
- Morphew - scurvy
- Myelitis - inflammation of the spine.
- Necrosis - motificatin of bones or tissue.
- Nephrosis - kidney degeneration.
- Nepritis - inflammation of the kidneys.
- Neuralgia - a disease of the nerves. May have been a
meningitis, brain tumor, polio, epilepsy.
- Nostalgia - homesickness.
- Opthalmia - a severe inflammation of the eyeball or
- Palsy - Uncontrolled movement of muscles.
- Paristhmitis - quinsey.
- Paroxysm - convulsions.
- Pellagra - disease caused by eating spoiled corn.
- Pertussis - whooping cough
- Phthisis - Tuberculosis; marasmus.
- Phthisis Pulmoniasis - lung consumption (a big thank-you to
Larry Wernle for this one)
- Phthiriasis - lice infestation.
- Plague/Black Death - Bubonic plague.
- Pleurisy - inflammation of the lining of the chest cavity.
- Pneumonia - inflammation of the lungs.
- Podagra - gout.
- Poliomyelitis - polio.
- Potts Disease - Tuberculosis of the spinal vertebrae.
- Pox - syphilis.
- Puerpural Convulsions - Toxemia of pregnancy with
hypertension, edema, etc. Convulsions are frequent.
- Puerperal Exhaustion - death due to childbirth.
- Puerpural Fever - infection associated with childbirth;
sepsis sometimes occurring during childbirth.
- Puking Fever - milk sickness.
- Putrid Fever - typhus.
- Pyemia - Blood poisoning.
- Pyrexia - dysentery.
- Quinsing - almost certainly QUINSEY, an abscess of the
- Remitting Fever - Malaria.
- Rheumatism - pain in joints.
- Rickets - disease of skeletal system.
- Rose Cold - Hay fever; allergies.
- Roseola - false measles.
- Rubeola - German measles.
- Scallue, Scroffula - a tuberculosis, especially of the
glands, but often spreading to the rest of the body.
- Scarlet Fever - a highly contagious disease, especially of
children. Characterized by sore throat, fever and a scarlet rash.
- Sciatica - rheumatism in the hips.
- Scirrhus - cancerous tumors.
- Scrivener's palsy - writer's cramp.
- Screws - Rheumatism.
- Scrofula - tuberculosis of the lymphastic glands especially
in the neck.
- Scrumpox - impetigo
- Scurvy - lack of vitamin C.
- Septicemia - blood poisoning
- Shakes - delirium tremens.
- Shingles - viral disease with skin blisters.
- Ship Fever - typhus.
- Sloes - milk sickness.
- St. Anthony's Fire - also known as Erisipelas/Erysipelas -
an acute infectious disease of the skin or mucous membranes caused by a
streptococcus and characterized by local inflammation and fever.
- Smallpox - a highly contagious viral disease characterized
by prolonged fever, vomiting, and eruptions on the skin that often left
pitted scars (or pockmarks) when healed.
- Spanish Influenza - epidemic influenza.
- Spasms - sudden involuntary contraction of muscles;
- Spina Bifida - deformity of spine.
- Spotted Fever - Typhus or meningitis.
- St. Vitas' Dance - ceaseless occurrence of involuntary rapid
- Strangers' Fever - yellow fever.
- Strangery - rupture.
- Swamp Fever - malaria
- Tertian Fever - occurring every other day, usually every
third day, applied to fever or a disease causing it, especially certain
forms of malaria.
- Tetanus - lockjaw.
- Thrombosis - blood clot inside blood vessel.
- Tick Fever - Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
- Trench Mouth - painful ulcers on gums.
- Tuberculosis - an infectious disease characterized by the
formation of tubercles in various tissues of the body, especially the
lungs. Also called consumption.
- Tussis Convulsive - Whooping Cough.
- Typhoid - a highly infectious disease acquired by ingesting
food or water contaminated by excreta. It was formerly considered
a form of typhus and is characterized by fever, intestinal disorders,
- Typhus - acute infection disease transmitted by lice and
- Variola - smallpox
- Winter Fever - probably influenza, pneumonia.
- Womb Fever - infection of the uterus.
- Yellow Fever - a highly infectious disease caused by a virus
transmitted by the bite of the yellow-fever mosquito. It is
characterized by fever, jaundice, vomiting, etc.
- Yellow Jacket - Yellow fever.
Time Line for Known Wars*, Epidemics & Natural
Disasters in Illinois
Please help me...if you know of anything to add, let me
* Unless otherwise noted, events are limited to Illinois or a
territory that included Illinois....
|1700 - Tertian Fever
||Junction of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers
|1754-1763 - War
||French and Indian War
|1785 - Flood
|1789 - Intermittent Fever
|1797 - Malignant Fever
|1799 - Smallpox
|1803 - Bilious Fever
|1805 - Tornado
|1807 - Influenza
|1808 - Scarlet Fever
||Ohio Valley (including Illinois)
|1811 - Earthquake
||Estimated at over 8.0 on the Richter Scale. Centered in
New Madrid, MO, but caused massive damage in Illinois. Felt from Canada
to New Orleans and as far east as Boston
|1812 - Smallpox
|1812-1815 - War
||War of 1812
|1813 - War
||Peoria Indian War
|1820 - Yellow Fever
||Vincennes (Illinois/Indiana Border)
|1820 - "Cold Plague"/Influenza
|1824 - Influenza
|1827 - Dysentery
||Galena and other parts of Jo Daviess County
|1827 - War
||Fever River Indian War, Winnebago Indian War
|1830 - Milk Sickness
|1831 - War
||Sac and Fox Indian War
|1832 - Cholera
||Central Illinois, including Effingham County
|1833 - Milk Sickness
|1832-1833 - War
||Black Hawk War (Illinois and Wisconsin)
|1835 to 1837 - Ophthalmia
|1835 - Fever
||Beaver Creek, Iroquois County
|1836 - Yellow Fever
||Peoria and vicinity
|1837 - Smallpox
||Native American Communities
|1839 - Fever and Ague
||Along the Mississippi River near Rock Island and Fulton
Counties. Also DeKalb County.
|1843 - Erysipelas
|1843 - Influenza
|1844 - Cholera
||Green, Tazewill and Will Counties
|1844 - Erysipelas
||Edwards and neighboring counties
|1844 - War
|1845 - Meningitis
|1845 - Black Tongue
|1846 - Fever and Ague
||1,500 cases in Stark County
|1846 - Typhoid
|1846-1848 - War
|1848 - Malaria, Typhoid
|1849 to 1852 - Cholera
||Entire state; especially severe in the Chicago area
|1850 - Cholera
|1852 - Cholera, Smallpox,
Erysipelatous Ophthalimia, Dysentery,
Typhoid, Scarlet Fever, Malaria
||Entire State of Illinois
|1853 - Puerperal Fever
||Entire State of Illinois
|1854-1855 - Cholera
|1857 to 1867 - Diptheria
|1858 - Tuberculosis
|1859 - Malaria
|1860-1865 - War
|1862 - Measles & Pneumonia
||Metropolis, Illinois region
|1864 - Erysipelas
||Various locations throughout Illinois
|1865 - Ague
|1870 - Diarrheal Disorders, Measles
|1871 - Great Chicago Fire
|1872-1873 - Cholera
|1873 - Influenza
|1876 to 1896 - Diptheria
||Entire State (especially the Chicago area)
Peak year was 1880.
|1878 - Yellow Fever
|1881 - Smallpox
|1881 - Cerebrospinal Fever
|1882 - Smallpox
||77 of 102 Counties (not specified)
|1882 - Scarlet Fever
|1885 - Glanders
||Kane, Peoria and Boone Counties
|1885 - Heaviest Rainfall on Record
||6.19 inches in 24 hours on August 2 and 3, 1885
|1889 - Influenza
|1898 - War
|1903 - Fire
||Iroquois Theatre Fire, Chicago
|November, 1909 - Coal Mine
||Fire - St. Paul Coal Mine, Cherry, Illinois
|1918 - Influenza
||Worldwide (including Illinois)
|1914-1918 - War
||World War I
|March 18, 1925 - Tornado
||A tornado destroyed the De Sota Public School near
Tamaroa. Many children were either killed or badly injured. The tornado
Illinois, Indiana and Missouri. In Illinois alone, more than 600
were killed. Severe casualties were reported in West Frankfort,
Carmi and Orient in southern Illinois.
|April 30, 1925 - 10:00 PM
||Earthquake - 3 distinct shocks felt from St. Louis,
to Evansville, Indiana, and from Chicago to Cairo.
|1927 - Flood
||Flood - Mississippi River basin
|December 24, 1932 - Coal Mine
||Coal Mine Gas Explosion - Moweaque
|1939-1945 - War
||World War II (America Joined in 1941)
|March 27, 1947 - Coal Mine
||Gas expolsion in coal mine near Centralia
|April 4, 1949
- Hospital Fire
Hospital Fire, Effingham
|1950-1953 - War
|1961-1975 - War
|September 15, 1972 - Earthquake
||3.7 on the Richter scale; epicenter in southern Illinois.
Caused damage in Amboy, Holcomb and Rock Falls.
|April 3, 1974 - Earthquake
||4.7 on the Richter scale; epicenter in southern Illinois
|December 5, 1978 - Earthquake
||3.5 on the Richter scale; epicenter in southern Illinois
|1983 - War
|May, 1991 - War
||Desert Storm War
|May, 1999 - Flood
||Flood - Joe Daviess County
2008 - Earthquakes
earthquake struck at 4:36 AM. Another quake measuring 4.5 occurred at
10:15 AM. Epicenter was near West Salem, (Edwards County, south of
Olney). Effects felt in Jasper, Clay and Effingham
counties. Up to 20 afershocks continued for the next two
of heavy rains resulting in flooding and ruined crops. Some areas
got as much as 7" of rain on some days. Some areas were declared
disaster areas, eligible for Federal relief. Salt Creek was over
flood stage between Teutopolis and Effingham and Route 40 between the
two cities was closed for days. The dam at June Lake failed.
- Accomptant - accountant
- Accoucheur/Accoucheus - one who assisted women in childbirth
- Accoutrement maker/accoutre - supplier of military
- Ackerman/Acreman - ploughman, an oxherder
- Actuary - kept public accounts of business
- Aeronaut - balloonist or a trapeze artist in the circus or
- Affeeror - tax assessor
- Alblastere - crossbow archer
- Alderman - city official (usually one position down from
- Alewife - woman tavernkeeper
- Almoner - giver of charity to the needy
- Amanuensis - secretary or stenographer
- Apiarian - beekeeper
- Apothecary - prepared and sold medicines or drugs; pharmacist
- Apprentice - was bound to a skilled worker to learn the
trade; one of three grades of skill recognized by the Guild of Crafts
[apprentice; journeyman; master])
- Archiator - physician
- Artificer - a soldier mechanic who does repairs
- Assayer - determined the proportions of metal to ore
- Aurifaber - goldsmith
- Badgy Fiddler - boy trumpeter in the military
- Bagman - traveling salesman
- Gagniokeeper - in charge of a bath house or brothel
- Bailie - bailiff
- Barber - also could act as a dentist
- Bard - poet
- Barker - tanner
- Barrister - lawyer; solicitor
- Batman - officer's servant in the military
- Baxter- baker
- Besom Maker - broom maker
- Bladesmith - swordmaker or knife maker
- Blentonist - water diviner
- Bluestocking - a female writer
- Boarding Officer - inspected ships before they entered port
- Boardwright - carpenter
- Boatman - worked on boats primarily on rivers and canals
- Boatswain - ship's officer in charge of rigging and sails
- Bobby - policeman (probably in England, Canada, or Australia)
- Boniface - a keeper of an inn
- Boonmaster - surveyor of roads (included maintaining and
- Botcher - tailor or cobbler
- Brazier - one who works with brass
- Brewster - beer brewer
- Brightsmith - metal worker
- Buffalo Soldier - black soldier serving in a black regiment
in the US Army in the American West
- Bullwhacker - oxen driver
- Bummer - army deserter
- Burgonmeister/Burgomaster - mayor
- Busker - hair dresser
- Butner - button maker
- Cafender - carpenter
- Cambist - banker
- Cartographer - map maker
- Cartwright - maker of carts and wagons
- Catechista - teacher of religion
- Caulker - one who fills up cracks (in ships or windows) to
make them watertight (using tar or oakum-hemp fiber from old ropes)
- Chaisemaker - carriage maker
- Chandler - dealer or trader; one who makes or sells candles;
- Charwoman - cleaning woman
- Chiffonnier - wig maker
- Chimney Sweep - chimney cleaner
- Clacker - magician; astrologer
- Clark - clerk
- Clicker - the servant of a salesman who stood at the door to
invite customers in; one who made eyelet holes in shoes.
- Clod Hopper - plowman
- Clogger - maker of woden shoes
- Coalier - maker of charcoal (thanks to James R. Clayton)
- Cobbler - shoe maker
- Cohen - priest
- Collier - coal miner
- Colporteur - book peddler
- Confectioner - one who owns a bakery (thanks to Sammie Leap)
- Cooper - one who makes or repairs vessels formed of staves
and hoops, such as casks, barrels, tubs, etc.
- Cordwainier - shoemaker
- Costermonger - peddler of fruits and vegetables
- Coxwain - ship or boat helmsman
- Crocker - potter
- Crofter - tenant of a small piece of land
- Cropper - tenant who is paid with a share of the crop
- Crowner - coroner
- Currier - horse groomer
- Daguerreotype Artist - early photographer
- Delver - ditch digger
- Docker - stevedore, dock worker
- Domestic - household servant
- Dowser - one who finds water
- Dragoon - mounted infantryman
- Draper - a dealer in dry goods
- Drayman - one who drives a cart without fixed sides for
- Dresser - surgeon's assistant in a hospital
- Drover - cowboy (one who drives cattle to market); cattle
- Drummer - traveling salesman
- Duffer - peddler
- Factor - agent; commission merchant
- Farrier - one who shoes horses; blacksmith
- Faulkner - falconer
- Fell Monger - one who removes hair or wool from hides
- Feller - woodcutter
- Fletcher - one who made bows and arrows
- Fuller - one who cleans and finishes cloth
- Gaoler - jailer
- Glazier - window glassman
- Granger - farmer
- Haberdasher - seller of men's clothing
- Hacker - maker of hoes
- Hatcheler - one who combed out or carded flax
- Haymonger - dealer in hay
- Hayward - keeper of fences
- Higgler - Itinerant peddler
- Hillier - roof tiler
- Hind - farm laborer
- Hobbler - boat tower on a river or canal
- Hodsman - mason's assistant
- Hoofer - dancer
- Hooker - reaper (yeah, sure)....the Civil War brought common
use of the term to describe "camp followers"......came from General Joe
Hooker's army who started calling the camp followers "hookers"....
- Hooper - one who made hoops for casks and barrels
- Hosier - retailer of stockings, socks, gloves, nightcaps
- Hosteller - innkeeper
- Hostler - groom who takes care of horses at an inn
- House Wright - house builder
- Huckster - seller of small wares
- Husbandman - tenant farmer
- Iceman - seller or deliverer of ice
- Interfactor - murderer
- Jagger - fish peddler
- Jobber - a buyer in quantity to sell to others
- Joiner/Joyner - carpenter
- Journeyman - one who served his apprenticeship (one of three
grades of skill recognized by the Guild of Crafts [apprentice,
- Kedger - fisherman
- Keeler - bargeman
- Kempster - wool comber
- Knocknobbler - dog catcher
- Knoller - church bell ringer
- Lagger - sailor
- Lardner - keeper of the cupboard
- Laster - shoe maker
- Lavender - washerwoman
- Lederer - leather maker
- Leech - physician
- Longshoreman - stevedore
- Lormer - maker of horse gear
- Lum Swooper - chimney sweep
- Maid - female domestic servant
- Malendar - farmer
- Maltster - brewer
- Manciple - steward
- Mango - slave dealer
- Mantua maker - dressmaker
- Mason - bricklayer; stone cutter
- Master - one of three grades of skill recognized by the
Guild of Crafts (apprentice, journeyman, master)
- Midwife - experienced woman who assisted in childbirth
- Millner - maker of women's hat
- Mintmaster - one who issued local currency
- Monger - seller of goods (ale, fish)
- Muleskinner - teamster
- Muleteer - mule driver
- Neatherder - herded cows
- Nedeller - needle maker
- Noterer - notary
- Ordinary Keeper - Innkeeper with fixed prices
- Out Crier - auctioneer
- Pantler - butler
- Pasteler - pastry chef
- Pastor - shepherd
- Pedascule - schoolmaster
- Perambulator - surveyor
- Peregrinator - itinerant wanderer
- Peruker - wig maker
- Pettifogger - a shyster lawyer
- Pigman - crockery dealer
- Piker - tramp; vagrant
- Piller - thief; robber
- Pilot - person who steered ships
- Plumber - one wo applied sheet lead for roofing and set lead
frames for pain or stained-glass windows
- Poleman - surveyor's assistant
- Ponderator - inspector of weights and measures
- Porter - door keeper; gate keeper
- Potato Badger - seller of potatoes
- Preceptress - school mistress
- Prentis - apprentice
- Proctor - official of a university
- Prothonary - law clerk
- Publican - innkeeper
- Puddler - wrought iron worker
- Puggard - thief
- Punky - chimney sweep
- Purser - ship's officer in charge of provisions and accounts
- Quarrier - quarry worker
- Rag Man - collector of old clothes and rags
- Ratoner - rat catcher
- Reeve - church warden
- Registrar - town official who recorded births, deaths,
marriages and land records
- Rigger - hoist tackle worker
- Ripper - fish seller
- Roper - rope maker or net maker
- Rockgetter - rocksalt miner
- Rodman - surveyor's assistant
- Runner - smuggler
- Rustler - cattle thief
- Saddler - saddle maker, harness maker
- Sawbones - physician
- Sawyer - carpenter
- Schumacker - shoemaker
- Scribe - clerk
- Scribler - minor or worthless author
- Scrimer - fencing master
- Scrivener - professional or public copyist or writer; notary
- Scrutiner- election judge
- Searcher - customs official
- Sempster - seamstress
- Sexton - employee or officer of a church in charge of its
maintenance; sometimes rang bells and/or dug graves
- Sharecropper - tenant farmer who would be paid with part of
- Shearer - removed fleece from sheep
- Ship Husband - repairer of ships while they were in harbor
- Ship Master - owner (or captain) of a ship
- Shrieve - sheriff
- Sickleman - harvested crops with a sickle
- Skinner - dealer in hides; mule driver
- Slater - roofer
- Snobscat - one who repaired shoes
- Solicitor - lawyer
- Sorter - tailor
- Spinster - unmarried woman; woman who spun cloth for a living
- Spurrer - spur maker
- Squire - country gentleman; farm owner; justice of the peace
- Stationer - bookseller, seller of paper & writing
- Statist - politician
- Steeple Jack - cleaned flag poles, church steeples
- Stuff Gown/Stuff Gownsman - junior barrister
- Supercargo - officer on merchant ship
- Sutler - merchant or peddler in an army camp
- Tanner - one who cures animal hides
- Tailor - one who made or repaired clothes
- Tapley - one to puts the tap in an ale cask
- Tanner - leather maker
- Tasker - reaper
- Teamster - one who drives a horse team for hauling
- Thatcher - roofer
- Thresher - one who separated the grain from the husks and
- Tide waiter - customs inspector
- Tinker - in itinerant tin pot and pan seller; repairman
- Tipstaff - policeman
- Tobacco Spinner - cigar maker
- Town Crier - one who made public announcements in the streets
- Tranter - peddler
- Travers - toll bridge collector
- Tucker - cleaner of cloth goods
- Turner - one who turns wood on a lathe into spindles
- Turnkey - prison warden or jail keeper
- Valet - male servant
- Victualler - keeper of a restaurant or tavern; one who
provisions an army, navy, or ship with food.
- Vintner - wine merchant
- Vulcan - blacksmith
- Wagoner - teasmster not for hire
- Wainwright - wagon maker or wagon repairer
- Waiter - customs officer
- Wakeman - night watchman
- Warder - prison guard
- Waterman - boatman for hire
- Wayman - road surveyor
- Weatherspy - astrologer
- Webster - operator of looms
- Wet Nurse - woman employed to suckle the child or another (a
common practice among the rich)
- Wharfinger - owner of a wharf
- Wheelwright - made or repaired wheels for carriages, etc.
- Whipperin - managed the hounds in a hunt
- Whitesmith - tinsmith
- Whitewing - street sweeper
- Whitster - cloth bleacher
- Wright - workman (especially a construction worker)
- Wyrth - laborer
- Yarb - a person who heals with the use of herbs and plants
(probably the original homeopathic doctor). This information is
courtesy of Mary Ready-Gatewood. Thanks, Mary!
- Yeoman - a farmer who owns his own land
Know of any others? Let's add them to this list and
Linda (Kralman) Lambert ([email protected])
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